The trajectories of COVID-19 have been dramatically different in the USA and Europe. Currently there are close to 30,000 new cases per day in the USA, compared with around 3,000 per day in the European Union (and around 20 per day in Switzerland which is not an EU member). Testing rates per million are similar in USA and EU, and the EU population is 446 million compared to 332 million in USA. Almost half of US states are reporting significant upward trend in new daily cases. In most cases, this is not a “second wave” but a restart of growth after social distancing was relaxed while there had not been any substantial downturn in new cases.